Etcher is a OS image flasher built with web technologies, a utility used for writing image files such as .iso and .img files, as well as zipped folders onto storage media to create live SD cards and USB flash drives. It protects from accidentally writing to hard-drives and ensures every byte of data was written correctly. It can flash directly Raspberry Pi devices that support the usbboot protocol. Etcher was developed using the Electron framework.
Rufus is a free and open-source portable application developed by Pete Batard of Akeo Consulting for Microsoft Windows that can be used to format and create bootable USB flash drives or Live USBs. Rufus supports a variety of bootable .iso files, including various Linux distributions and Windows installation .iso files, as well as raw disk image files (including compressed ones). If needed, it can install a bootloader such as SYSLINUX or GRUB onto the flash drive to render it bootable.